Table 7

Studies assessing the association of maternal or paternal smoking and the risk of breast cancer

Type of study

Ref.

Year

Design

Cases

Controls (or cohort)

Country/place of study

Smoking status

OR (95% CI)

Comments


Case-control studies

[69]

1996

PCC

53

470

USA

Maternal smoking

Crude ORs

No

Referent

Yes

0.9 (0.4–2.1)

Paternal smoking

No

Referent

Yes

1.3 (0.9–1.7)

[14]

1996

PCC

1,086

1,321

USA

Maternal smoking

Adjusted for age, menopausal status, and maternal smoking; OR (95% CI) for maternal smoking among early-onset breast cancer patients (≤ 30 years old) was 1.9 (1.0–3.4)

Age 21–45 years

No

Referent

Yes

1.1 (0.9–1.3)

Age 50–64 years

No

Referent

Yes

1.3 (0.9–2.1)

[58]

1997

PCC

522

484

USA

Maternal smoking

Adjusted for age, study site, family history of breast cancer, breast biopsy, a combination variable including number of full-term births and age at first full-term pregnancy, age at menarche, menopausal status, body mass index, average lifetime alcohol consumption, and the number of mammograms

No

Referent

Yes

1.1 (0.8–1.4)

[33]

1998

PCC

507

433

USA

Maternal smoking

Crude ORs

No

Referent

Yes

1.1 (0.9–1.5)

[43]

2001

LCC

319

768

USA

Maternal smoking

Adjusted for attained age

No

Referent

Yes

2.7 (1.1–6.3)

[35]a

2002

PCC

1,535

1,534

USA

Smoking

Adjusted for age and residential regions (states)

No

Referent

Paternal smoking

1.00 (0.88–1.13)

Maternal/parental smoking

1.10 (0.84–1.42)

[20]

2005

PCC

2380

2,497

Poland

Maternal smoking

Unadjusted; recalculated

No

Referent

Yes (any exposure)

1.19 (0.97–1.47)

Paternal smoking

No

Referent

Yes (any exposure)

0.90 (0.77–1.05)

Cohort studies

[31]

2006

Cohort

249

1,024

USA

Maternal smoking

Referent

Adjusted for age at diagnosis, diagnosis year, stage at diagnosis, and birth order, with exception of birth order, which is adjusted for maternal age Crude relative rates

No

0.8 (0.5–1.1)

Yes (any exposure)

[68]

2005

Cohort

42

(3,989)

USA

Maternal smoking

No

Referent

Yes (any exposure)

0.49 (0.29–1.03)

≤ 15 cigarettes a day

0.33 (0.12–0.94)

>15

0.68 (0.26–1.73)


aTitus-Ernstoff and coworkers [35] classified three categories: nonparental smoking, either paternal or maternal smoking only or both parents smoking during pregnancy. Thus, in this study, the maternal or both parents smoking versus nonparental smoking can be regarded as maternal smoking versus no maternal smoking. Cohort, cohort study; LCC, case-control study by linkage with population data and cancer registry data; PCC, population-based case-control study.

Park et al. Breast Cancer Research 2008 10:R8   doi:10.1186/bcr1850

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